Test objects - Chest Phantoms - Lung Density - Non-commerical

Chest phantoms have been used to evaluate image quality and radiation dose.  In many situations, the goal is to produce patient-like images for visual image quality by radiologists.  These phantoms that replicate patient images are anthropomorphic and a likely the source of the jargon term, "phantom".

Baydush compared anthropomorphic and geometric chest phantoms Data supporting using simple geometric test object instead of anthropomorphic phantom for scatter and dose evaluations. Baydush 2000

Lung Tissue Density
For lung tissue density phantoms, I will distinguish several types of lung phantoms.
    1.  Containers with biological lung samples, usually whole lobes of lungs.  The containers were usually shaped like the non-lung tissue portion of the thorax with its x-ray attenuation.
    2.  Containers were shaped like the non-lung portion of the thorax with its x-ray attenuation filled with foam with x-ray attenuation characteristics of the lung.
    3.  Foams with x-ray attenuation characteristics of the lung in containers with minimal attenuation
    4.  Non-anthropomorphic phantom containing foam with surrounding plastics such that the phantom has the x-ray attenuation of the whole chest.

Constantinou described projection x-ray anthropomorphic and geometric phantoms. Constantinou 1986
Constantinou described for measurement electron density for radiation treatment planning. Constantinou 1992
Kemerink used a acrylic thorax cross-section with foam in the lung cavities. Kemerink 1996
Kemerink used the acrylic thorax cross-section with foam in the lung cavities described in 1996 Med Phys paper. Kemerink 1997
Mishima put pieces of Styrofoam in cylindrical container, one section no added water other section added water. Mishima 1997
Stoel put pieces of foam of various densities in plastic tube with piston. Stoel 2004
Gietema used a 32cm foam with air hole and plastic rod. Gietema 2007
Stoel used an acrylic box containing foams with attenuation of lung tissue.  Stoel 2008